The goal of funneljoin is to make it easy to analyze behavior funnels. For example, maybe you’re interested in finding the people who visit a page and then register. Or you want all the times people click on an item and add it to their cart within 2 days.

You can do this with funneljoin’s after_join() function. The arguments are:

  • x: a dataset with the first set of behaviors.
  • y: a dataset with the second set of behaviors.
  • by_time: a character vector to specify the time columns in x and y. Must be a single column in each tbl. Note that this column is used to filter for time y >= time x.
  • by_user: a character vector to specify the user or identity columns in x and y. Must be a single column in each tbl.
  • mode: the method used to join: “inner”, “full”, “anti”, “semi”, “right”, “left”.
  • type: the type of funnel used to distinguish between event pairs, such as “first-first”, “last-first”, “any-firstafter”. See types of funnels.
  • max_gap (optional): the maximum gap between events. Can be a integer representing the number of seconds or a difftime object

after_join types

Funneljoins can be any combination of first, last, any, and lastbefore with first, last, any, and firstafter.

Let’s take an example. We’ll use two tables, one of landings and one of registrations, that come with the package. Each has a user_id and timestamp column.

library(dplyr)
library(funneljoin)
landed
#> # A tibble: 9 x 2
#>   user_id timestamp 
#>     <dbl> <date>    
#> 1       1 2018-07-01
#> 2       2 2018-07-01
#> 3       3 2018-07-02
#> 4       4 2018-07-01
#> 5       4 2018-07-04
#> 6       5 2018-07-10
#> 7       5 2018-07-12
#> 8       6 2018-07-07
#> 9       6 2018-07-08
registered
#> # A tibble: 8 x 2
#>   user_id timestamp 
#>     <dbl> <date>    
#> 1       1 2018-07-02
#> 2       3 2018-07-02
#> 3       4 2018-06-10
#> 4       4 2018-07-02
#> 5       5 2018-07-11
#> 6       6 2018-07-10
#> 7       6 2018-07-11
#> 8       7 2018-07-07

Let’s say we wanted to get only the first time people landed and the first time they registered, if it was after their first landing. We would use a first-first inner join.

landed %>%
  after_inner_join(registered, 
                   by_user = "user_id",
                   by_time = "timestamp",
                   type = "first-first")
#> # A tibble: 4 x 3
#>   user_id timestamp.x timestamp.y
#>     <dbl> <date>      <date>     
#> 1       1 2018-07-01  2018-07-02 
#> 2       3 2018-07-02  2018-07-02 
#> 3       6 2018-07-07  2018-07-10 
#> 4       5 2018-07-10  2018-07-11

We now have a dataset of four rows. Notice a few things:

  • timestamp.y is always greater than or equal to timestamp.x. This is a condition of after_join.
  • Because it’s an inner join, we only have users who were in both tables and had a timestamp.y that was greater than a timestamp.x.
  • We only have one entry per user, as we made each table distinct by user, taking only their first landing or registration, before joining.
  • Although user 4 had a registration after a landing (“2018-07-01” landing and “2018-07-02” registration), they are not in the table because their first registration was on “2018-06-10”, so we only checked if that happened after their first landing.

Max gap

What if instead we wanted all landing-registration pairs that happened within a 4-day window? We now add the max_gap argument. This takes either a number, which is the number of seconds, or a difftime object. Instead of calculating the number of seconds in 4 days, we’ll just make a difftime object. Because we want any pair, not just the pairs of the first landings and registrations, we change the type to any-any.

We’ll also add gap_col = TRUE to return a column, .gap, which is the gap in seconds between the events.

landed %>%
  after_inner_join(registered, 
                   by_user = "user_id",
                   by_time = "timestamp",
                   type = "any-any", 
                   max_gap = as.difftime(4, units = "days"),
                   gap_col = TRUE)
#> # A tibble: 7 x 4
#>   user_id timestamp.x   .gap timestamp.y
#>     <dbl> <date>       <dbl> <date>     
#> 1       1 2018-07-01   86400 2018-07-02 
#> 2       3 2018-07-02       0 2018-07-02 
#> 3       4 2018-07-01   86400 2018-07-02 
#> 4       5 2018-07-10   86400 2018-07-11 
#> 5       6 2018-07-07  259200 2018-07-10 
#> 6       6 2018-07-08  172800 2018-07-10 
#> 7       6 2018-07-08  259200 2018-07-11

We now have a dataset of 7 rows. Notice a few things:

  • As always, timestamp.y is greater than or equal to timestamp.x.
  • User 6 appears three times, as they have three landing-registration pairs where the time difference is less than four days.
  • Just as before, because it’s an inner join, we only have users who were in both tables and had a timestamp.y that was greater than a timestamp.x.

Other types of joins

Left joins are very handy when you want to know what percentage of people who did X did Y afterward. For example, we may have an experiment where we want to know “what percentage of people registered after entering the experiment?”

In this case, we’d use a first-firstafter left join - we want to get a person’s first experiment start and then their first registration afterward, if they have one. Let’s add another column to our experiment starts table, which experiment variant someone was in.

experiment_starts <- tibble::tribble(
  ~user_id, ~timestamp, ~ alternative.name,
  1, "2018-07-01", "control",
  2, "2018-07-01", "treatment",
  3, "2018-07-02", "control",
  4, "2018-07-01", "control",
  4, "2018-07-04", "control",
  5, "2018-07-10", "treatment",
  5, "2018-07-12", "treatment",
  6, "2018-07-07", "treatment",
  6, "2018-07-08", "treatment"
) %>%
  mutate(timestamp = as.Date(timestamp))

experiment_registrations <- tibble::tribble(
  ~user_id, ~timestamp, 
  1, "2018-07-02", 
  3, "2018-07-02", 
  4, "2018-06-10", 
  4, "2018-07-02", 
  5, "2018-07-11", 
  6, "2018-07-10", 
  6, "2018-07-11", 
  7, "2018-07-07"
) %>%
  mutate(timestamp = as.Date(timestamp))
experiment_starts %>%
  after_left_join(experiment_registrations, 
                   by_user = "user_id",
                   by_time = "timestamp",
                   type = "first-firstafter")
#> # A tibble: 6 x 4
#>   user_id timestamp.x alternative.name timestamp.y
#>     <dbl> <date>      <chr>            <date>     
#> 1       1 2018-07-01  control          2018-07-02 
#> 2       2 2018-07-01  treatment        NA         
#> 3       4 2018-07-01  control          2018-07-02 
#> 4       3 2018-07-02  control          2018-07-02 
#> 5       6 2018-07-07  treatment        2018-07-10 
#> 6       5 2018-07-10  treatment        2018-07-11

We now have an entry for each user in the experiment_starts table, which has the time of their first registration afterward or NA if they did not have a registration afterwards. Each user only appears once since it’s a first-something join.

We can use funneljoin’s summarize_conversions() function to get the number of starts and number of conversions (registrations) in each group - you just need to specify the column that indicates whether someone converted - if it’s NA or FALSE, it will be treated as FALSE, otherwise TRUE.

experiment_starts %>%
  after_left_join(experiment_registrations, 
                   by_user = "user_id",
                   by_time = "timestamp",
                   type = "first-firstafter") %>% 
  group_by(alternative.name) %>%
  summarize_conversions(converted = timestamp.y)
#> # A tibble: 2 x 4
#>   alternative.name nb_users nb_conversions pct_converted
#>   <chr>               <int>          <int>         <dbl>
#> 1 control                 3              3         1    
#> 2 treatment               3              2         0.667

summarize_conversions also works if we have multiple types of conversions, specified by a column.

for_conversion <- tibble::tribble(
  ~"experiment_group", ~"first_event", ~"last_event", ~"type", 
  "control", "2018-07-01", NA, "click",
  "control", "2018-07-02", NA, "click",
  "control", "2018-07-03", "2018-07-05", "click",
  "treatment", "2018-07-01", "2018-07-05", "click",
  "treatment", "2018-07-01", "2018-07-05", "click",
  "control", "2018-07-01", NA, "purchase",
  "control", "2018-07-02", NA, "purchase",
  "control", "2018-07-03", NA, "purchase",
  "treatment", "2018-07-01", NA, "purchase",
  "treatment", "2018-07-01", "2018-07-05", "purchase"
)

for_conversion %>%
  group_by(type, experiment_group) %>%
  summarize_conversions(converted = last_event)
#> # A tibble: 4 x 5
#> # Groups:   type [2]
#>   type     experiment_group nb_users nb_conversions pct_converted
#>   <chr>    <chr>               <int>          <int>         <dbl>
#> 1 click    control                 3              1         0.333
#> 2 click    treatment               2              2         1    
#> 3 purchase control                 3              0         0    
#> 4 purchase treatment               2              1         0.5

Summarize Prop Tests

summarize_prop_tests() takes in a dataset with at least three columns - nb_users, nb_conversions, and a column indicating experiment group. It can also have an additional column that is the type of conversion - for example, you could have clicks and purchases. Each type of conversion can only have two rows, one control and one other group. If you have that additional column of type, you need to group by it first.

It returns a dataset with at least 5 columns:

  • control: the conversion rate of the control group
  • treatment: the conversion rate of the treatment group
  • p_value of the proportion test
  • pct_change: the percentage difference between the control and treatment group
  • pct_change_low and pct_change_high: the bayesian estimates for a 90% confidence interval.

If you had a type column, it will also be in the output.

tbl <- tibble::tribble(
  ~ experiment_group, ~nb_users, ~nb_conversions, ~type,
  "control", 500, 200, "purchase",
  "treatment", 500, 100, "purchase", 
  "control", 500, 360, "click",
  "treatment", 500, 375, "click"
)

tbl %>%
  group_by(type) %>%
  summarize_prop_tests(alternative_name = experiment_group)
#> # A tibble: 2 x 7
#>   type  control treatment  p_value pct_change pct_change_low
#>   <chr>   <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>      <dbl>          <dbl>
#> 1 click    0.72      0.75 3.16e- 1     0.0417        -0.0248
#> 2 purc…    0.4       0.2  8.39e-12    -0.5           -0.621 
#> # … with 1 more variable: pct_change_high <dbl>